In France, conspiracy theories were rife in the highly charged political atmosphere, with the Abbé Barruel, in perhaps the most influential work Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism (1797–1798), arguing that Freemasons and other dissidents had been responsible for an attempt to destroy the monarchy and the Catholic Church. A simplified description of the liberal approach to the Revolution was typically to support the achievements of the constitutional monarchy of the National Assembly but disown the later actions of radical violence like the invasion of the Tuileries and the Terror. One well-known interpretation of the Revolution is the Marxist interpretation. The Secret History. (DOC) Recent Historiography of the French Revolutionary Terror | Jay Eisenberg - Academia.edu Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. For work on the family, see notes 3, 17, 22 above. The premier journal of gender history in France, Clio. Denise Z. Davidson, “Feminism and Abolitionism: Transatlantic Trajectories,” in The French Revolution in Global Perspective, ed. Much of this work arose in dialogue with au courant approaches in fields such as the histories of capitalism, sexuality, or the transatlantic world.  In the latter study she works with a somewhat Freudian interpretation, the political Revolution as a whole being seen as an enormous dysfunctional family haunted by patricide: Louis as father, Marie-Antoinette as mother, and the revolutionaries as an unruly mob of brothers. Femmes, Genre, Histoire 20 (2004): 1–16, quote 12. Why this move toward analyzing women as actors? It is the oldest of the five académies of the institute. He recognized the complications that prevented the Revolution from fulfilling all its ideal promises – as when the legislators of 1793 made suffrage universal for all French men, but also established the dictatorship of the Terror.. Scholars like Carla Hesse, Jennifer Heuer, Anne Verjus, Denise Davidson, and myself rejected a simple public-private dichotomy and asked how women at times seized revolutionary openings to publish their writings, claim national citizenship, push for more power within families, and so on.3 While some scholars still foreground gender exclusion,4 the focal point seems to have altered. Ten years. Journal of the History of Ideas 79.2 (2018): 221-242. Rosalie was heavily engaged in revolutionary politics, strategizing with her husband and son, and attending the Convention galleries. This scholarship often encompasses both the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras.  Its narrative- while massive- focuses on the most visible leaders of the Revolution, even through its more "popular" phases. Aulard – 1891 (for more than thirty years), Disch, Lisa. At each stage, the question of who should hold political power was further refined. Thus Schama is simultaneously able to deny the existence of a so-called "bourgeois" revolution, reserve apotheoses for Robespierre, Louis XVI, and the sans-culottes alike, and utilize historical nuance to a degree usually associated with more liberal historians. Another historian working in this tradition is Keith Michael Baker. Her move dovetailed with Napoleonic changes in family law that curtailed women’s civil rights and arguably forwarded the growth of domesticity.17, Although there does not seem to be much recent work on gender and the counterrevolution, Guillaume Mazeau has explored how the act of a single woman, Charlotte Corday, helped to polarize the Revolution by embodying and accentuating the opposition between “revolution” and “counterrevolution,” as imagined both in 1793 and later. John McManners, Jean Egret, Franklin Ford and others wrote on the divided and complex situation of the nobility in pre-revolutionary France. “The Continuing Controversy over the Etiology and Nature of the French Revolution.”Canadian Journal of History 16 (December 1981): 357–378. , Thiers' history of the Revolution was praised by the French authors Chateaubriand, Stendhal et Sainte-Beuve, was translated into English (1838) and Spanish (1889), and won him a seat in the Académie française in 1834. In the recently translated Histoire de la Virilité, revolutionary masculinity is represented primarily in the military. Charlotte Corday et l’attentat contre Marat (1793–2009) (Seyssel, 2009), and “Scripting the French Revolution, Inventing the Terror: Marat’s Assassination and its Interpretations,” in Scripting Revolution: A Comparative Study of Revolutions, ed. “Volney and the French Revolution.”. Madame de Xantrailles cross-dressed as a male soldier to serve in seven revolutionary and Napoleonic campaigns. Lived: 1910-1993. He wrote to Ralph Waldo Emerson that the writing of the book was the "dreadfulest labor [he] ever undertook".. A collection of his essays (Inventing the French Revolution, 1990) examines the ideological origins of the Revolution. It marked his transition from revolutionary leftist politics to liberal Left-center position, and reflected his ties to the social-science-oriented Annales School. Katie Jarvis, for example, proposes that Parisian market women staked their citizenship claims not on the idea that women as women deserved rights but rather on the notion that as food-retailers they were performing useful work, enacting a form of “economic citizenship” on the road to capitalism. Her epilogue on the revolutionary era suggests that these possibilities declined sharply in the 1790s with the hardening and politicizing of racial categories. Timothy Tackett in particular has changed approach, preferring archival research to historiographical dialectics. Passionate in his concern for the poor and in his interest in the fears and hopes of revolution, he (while reasonably historically accurate) is often more concerned with conveying his impression of the hopes and aspirations of people (and his opposition to ossified ideology—"formulas" or "Isms"—as he called them) than with strict adherence to fact. A general release book rather than a piece of academic research, Citizensmarked a return to the centre stage of narrative history, filled with colour, drama and suspense but light on theory and intensive analysis. She also theorizes prostitutes’ interactions with the state as “diminished citizens.” When the Directory imprisoned prostitutes, they responded by tapping into official, judicial language to demand justice not as citizens with full political rights but rather as citoyennes with droits à la cité. His other major work is When the King Took Flight (2004), a study of the rise of republicanism and radicalism in the Legislative Assembly in 1791/2. "Why the neglect? Genre, éducation, Révolution (1789–1830). There were many causes in the 1780s that led to the French Revolution, the … His broad interpretation argued: Aulard's historiography was based on positivism. Email: Search for other works by this author on: © The Author(s) 2018. Political Cause: During the eighteen the Century France was the centre of autocratic monarchy. Reading time 16 minutes. In the last decade or so, there has been an outpouring of empirical work on specific subgroups of women, sometimes discussed within an expanded framework of citizenship. , In 1954, Alfred Cobban used his inaugural lecture as Professor of French History at the University of London to attack what he called the "social interpretation" of the French Revolution. First, we look at the men-among-men approach. Gerald J. Cavanaugh. " A disillusioned ex-Communist, he published his La Révolution Française in 1965–66. For Verjus, new family ideals of conjugalism and a softer form of paternalism redefined the male paterfamilias as a gentler but still potent force within the couple, the household, society, and state. American historian George V. Taylor's research established that the bourgeoisie of the Third Estate were not quite the budding capitalists they were made out to be; indeed Taylor showed the aristocrats were just as entrepreneurial if not more so. In this essay, I will look at recent work on women and gender and examine the emerging field of masculinity during the Revolution. It is ostensibly a narrative of "Persons" and "Events", and more in the tradition of Carlyle than Tocqueville and Lefebvre. The dominating approach to the French Revolution in historical scholarship in the first half of the 20th century was the Marxist, or Classic, approach. The undoubted passion and intensity of the text may also be due to the famous incident where he sent the completed draft of the first volume to John Stuart Mill for comment, only for Mill's maid to accidentally burn the volume to ashes, forcing Carlyle to start from scratch. Sarah Knott, “Narrating the Age of Revolution,” William and Mary Quarterly 73, no. On the construction of the army as a masculine zone, see Alan Forrest, “Citizenship, Honour, and Masculinity: Military Qualities under the French Revolution and Empire,” in Gender, War and Politics: Transatlantic Perspectives, 1775–1830, ed. As Plumauzille puts it, “The police categorization of prostitution never completely replaced the republican political category of citizens (citoyennes.)”13. The historiography of the French Revolution goes back to before the closing of the revolutionary period. Working in these domains and others should help us to understand how gender dynamics informed and influenced the French Revolution. Furet in the 1960s worked in terms of the Annales School, which locates the 1789 revolution in a "long" history of 19th century revolutionary France. Hobsbawm sees the revolution in France, as well as subsequent revolutions on the European continent, as ‘dual revolutions’, where the demand for political change came on top of rapid industrial and economic changes. Desan (2000) concluded he "seemed to emerge the victor from the bicentennial, both in the media and in historiographic debates. , Aulard's books favored the study of parliamentary debates, not action in the street; institutions, not insurrections. Many minor studies appeared, such as The French Revolution: A Study in Democracy by British writer Nesta Webster, published in 1919. The historiography of the French Revolution stretches back over two hundred years, as commentators and historians have sought to answer questions regarding the origins of the Revolution, and its meaning and effects. On the most basic level, this young field, informed by much subtler thinking about gender as culturally constructed, is expanding its knowledge about understudied groups of women. Karen Hagemann, Gisela Mettele, and Jane Rendall (Basingstoke, UK, 2010), 93–109. Keith Cohen (New York, 2016, orig. She explores their social profile and analyzes the fluid, new popular sexual culture of revolutionary Paris. Publishing and Cultural Politics in Revolutionary Paris, 1789-1810(Berkeley: UC Press, 1991). Placing On Revolution in the historiography of the French and American Revolutions. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Decolonization Featured Book Historiography Intellectual History Middle Eastern History. As such, there is a vast range of literature on the topic, much of it involving specific methodologies and approaches. What women? I was a woman when I saved the 11th battalion . Just seventeen years ago the late Alfred Cobban opened the case against. Another seminal figure in the revisionism debate is the Francophile Englishman Richard Cobb, who has produced a number of immensely detailed studies of both provincial and city life, avoiding the revisionism debate by "keeping his nose very close to the ground". Take as an example Lindsay Parker’s biography of a Jacobin wife, Rosalie Jullien. A propos des femmes soldats de la Révolution et de l’Empire,” Politix 74 (2006): 31–48. Furet further suggested that popularity of the Far Left to many French intellectuals was itself a result of their commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. Sole, Jacques. “‘Red of Tooth and Claw’: The French Revolution and the Political Process—Then and Now.”, Walton, Charles. Annie Duprat has just published an edited volume of Jullien’s letters. In a slightly different vein, work on women bearing arms has emphasized the malleability of identity and motivation and suggested that the same issue could hold different resonances for different actors. "The Historiography of the French Revolution," in A. Goodwin, editor, The, Minchul, Kim. Katie L. Jarvis, “The Cost of Female Citizenship: How Price Controls Gendered Democracy in Revolutionary France,” French Historical Studies 41 (forthcoming October 2018), and Politics in the Marketplace; Anne Verjus, Le bon mari, and “Historiciser les catégories d’analyse: Le cas du genre à l’époque de la Révolution française,” in Gaboriaux Chloé et Skornicki Arnault, eds., Vers une sociale des idées politiques (Villeneuve d’Ascq, 2017). Other French historians in the 19th-century include: One of the most famous English works on the Revolution remains Thomas Carlyle's three-volume The French Revolution, A History (1837) . See also the interview of Haïm Burstin, Ivan Ermakoff, William H. Sewell, and Timothy Tackett in “Protagonisme et crises politiques: Histoire et sciences sociales,” Politix 28 (2015): 131–65. Schama concentrates on the early years of the Revolution, the Republic only taking up about a fifth of the book. From 1886 he taught at the Sorbonne, trained advanced students, founded the Société de l'Histoire de la Révolution, and edited the scholarly journal La Révolution française. Looking at modern French Communism he stressed the close resemblance between the 1960s and 1790s, with both favoring the inflexible and rote ideological discourse in party cells where decisions were made unanimously in a manipulated direct democracy. Eliane Viennot, Et la modernité fut masculine (Paris, 2016) argues that the Revolution produced a decline in women’s Old Regime public power and emphasizes their formal exclusion from the public sphere as laying the cornerstone for a modernity ruled over by men.  His appointment to the Sorbonne was promoted and funded by Republicans in the national and Paris governments, but he was not himself involved in party politics. "Historiography of the French Revolution," in Michael Bentley, ed. , The first major work on the Revolution by a French historian was published between 1823 and 1827 by Adolphe Thiers. And as David Hopkin has argued, investigating the actions of atypical women, such as female soldiers, has intellectual appeal beyond the perennial human fascination with the exceptional or the picturesque. In addition, researchers seek to put revolutionary scholarship in dialogue with other au courant fields, such as the history of sexuality, capitalism, or the culture of war. Christopher E. Forth and Bertrand Taithe (Basingstoke, UK, 2007), 31–50, quote 43. Verjus and Davidson reveal husbands and wives developing a striking amount of team work.22, Similar questions have arisen in gender scholarship on Saint-Domingue. Gender historiography has yet to be fully integrated into our thinking about these questions, especially when they are conceptualized as large tectonic forces rather than local experiences.24 A few transnational historians have posed questions about gender dynamics in conjunction with investigating traveling revolutionaries, the international circulation of ideas, and the entangled genealogies of gender and race. In it he established the conservative stream of opinion, wherein even the revolution of July 1789 went "too far". His work largely approaches the Revolution "from below", favouring explanations in terms of classes. These insights provide a deeper look into how and why this event happened. Suzanne Desan, Recent Historiography on the French Revolution and Gender, Journal of Social History, Volume 52, Issue 3, Spring 2019, Pages 566–574, https://doi.org/10.1093/jsh/shy079. Historians are also asking, how did individual women or subgroups of women demonstrate creativity, even as revolutionary elites often sought to reinforce the lines of male-female difference? "The outcome of 'our' French Revolution was very different from what actually happened in the 18th century, but at the end of the game, students had to reflect on their experience and write a paper describing and analyzing why what happened in our role-playing game would have been unlikely, if not impossible, in the 18th century. French Revolution, also called Revolution of 1789, revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789—hence the conventional term “Revolution of 1789,” denoting the end of the ancien régime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions … In her book on race and intimacy among mixed race families in Old Regime La Rochelle and Saint-Domingue, Jennifer Palmer shows how the family could become a site for contesting racial hierarchy or reshaping it in surprising ways, especially in the metropole. history writing for neoliberal times” and for a “globalizing present.”10, But other politics are also at play. "Volney and the French Revolution." The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to King Louis XIII. . Jennifer Ngaire Heuer, “Citizenship, the French Revolution, and the Limits of Martial Masculinity,” in Gender and Citizenship in Transnational Perspective, Rachel Fuchs and Anne Epstein (New York, 2016), 19–38. Colwill, “Freedwomen’s Familial Politics”; Rebecca J. Scott and Jean M. Hébrard, Freedom Papers: An Atlantic Odyssey in the Age of Emancipation (Cambridge, MA, 2012); Jennifer L. Palmer, Intimate Bonds: Family and Slavery in the French Atlantic (Philadelphia, 2016). A. Goldhammer, 1989). Politically, the governmental structure of the Revolution moved from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy to a republic and finally to an oligarchy. But it wasn’t as a woman that I made war; I made war as ‘un brave,’” as a courageous and good soldier.1 With her intriguing words, she points toward questions at the heart of current approaches to gender in the revolutionary era. Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France was a response to revolutionary events that was conservative and skeptical, mostly condemning the revolution as a pointless excess. The views of historians, in particular, have been characterised as falling along ideological lines, with disagreement over the significance and the major developments of the Revolution. The lecture was later published as "The Myth of the French Revolution", but his seminal work arguing this point was The Social Interpretation of the French Revolution (1963). Femmes, Genre, Histoire, dedicated a 2016 issue to “Citoyennetés” across the centuries and across the globe. But for women like Pauline Léon or Théroigne de Mérciourt, who lobbied publicly for women’s right to bear arms, the rights of women as citoyennes (i.e., as women and citizens) inevitably held center stage, precisely because the Revolution linked citizenship to bearing arms. Existing scholarship has often focused on the family, or on artistic and literary approaches to the incroyables,26 but it is striking that new work on the political dynamics and legacy of these periods, as discussed by Paul Hanson in this forum, has by and large not made gender analysis integral to its debates. The assumption was that methodology was all-important and the historian's duty was to present in chronological order the duly verified facts, to analyze relations between facts, and provide the most likely interpretation. . Its original purpose was to maintain standards of Iiterary taste and to establish the literary language. The French Revolution created turmoil across the whole of Europe, via a series of events which continue to captivate and inspire massive debate. 21 Other works have demonstrated that republican marriage played a pivotal role in defining manhood and male citizenship, notably Claire Cage’s book on married priests and Anne Verjus’s work on how discourse and family law positioned the family as the fundamental structure for imagining and enacting politics. It advanced the theory that the progress of the French Revolution was considerably influenced by a conspiracy conducted by "the lodges of the German Freemasons and Illuminati". 1. By the year 2000, many historians were saying that the field of the French Revolution was in intellectual disarray. Une histoire politique des hommes et des femmes à l’époque révolutionnaire (Paris, 2010). Historiography, the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from the authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical examination.The term historiography also refers to the theory and history of historical writing. Economic Cause. Public politics became a male domain. . The move seems to be: acknowledge limits on political citizenship but then ask what kind of citizenship claims women did wield. “Les affaires d’état sont mes affaires de coeur.” Rosalie Jullien, une femme dans la Révolution. Taking a literary approach, this work does not fully engage with revolutionary politics or on-the-ground gender dynamics. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION A HISTORY By THOMAS CARLYLE BOOK 1.I. On March 4 2011, the French historian Reynald Secher discovered documents in the National Archives in Paris confirming what he had known since the early 1980s: there had been a genocide during the French Revolution. Some scholars are taking part in a broader move toward theorizing the category of “citizenship” in wider and more nuanced ways. This is a list of a few historians during the French Revolution. Cf. I thank Jennifer Heuer, Katie Jarvis, Anne Verjus, and my fellow participants in this forum for their helpful suggestions. The bicentenary of the French Revolution in 1989 inspired a new wave of narrative histories, further expanding the historiography of the French Revolution. On integrating gender into world history, see Antoinette Burton, A Primer for Teaching World History: Ten Design Principles (Durham, NC, 2011), Chapter 3. It was published in French translation only in 1984. How did various groups of women enact or perform gender? 12 Hazan, A People’ s History of the French Revolution , 6, 255-257. At the same time, her methodology and her Old Regime analysis suggest a direction for future work on mixed race, transatlantic families during the French and Haitian revolutions.23, Beyond Saint-Domingue, transnational approaches to the revolutionary era have not focused much attention on gender issues, in part because the global turn—for revolutionary France—has prioritized questions about large-scale causes and crises, such as geopolitical competition for empire, international trade and finance, or revolutionary expansionism and the creation of sister republics. Influenced by Alexis de Tocqueville and Augustin Cochin, Furet argues that Frenchmen must stop seeing the revolution as the key to all aspects of modern French history. The book's allegiance is to historical literary styles rather than schools. The most significant opposition to arise in France was that of Annales historians François Furet, Denis Richet, and Mona Ozouf. 1 Gary Kates' comment, in his introduction to this collection of essays on the 1789 French Revolution, is certainly correct-though his claim is true of other great revolutions too. French Revolutionary Historiography: Alfred Cobban and Beyond. Jean-Paul Bertaud, “Military Virility,” in A History of Virility, ed. This Marxist interpretation is shown to be invalid by the research of the past several decades. Arguably, this tendency has been further encouraged by transnational historians who are working to humanize global or international dynamics and give them vibrant, personal texture.9 And in a thoughtful 2016 article on “Narrating the Age of Revolution,” Sarah Knott suggests that scholars of revolution across the Atlantic World have moved toward writing “situational narrative” that “privileges historical contingency.” Reactive behavior and particular circumstances, rather than ideology, shape the politics of individuals. Female schoolteachers, prostitutes, Parisian market women, nuns who got married, cosmopolitan revolutionaries on the move, slave women seeking emancipation via marrying soldiers, cross-dressed female soldiers, food suppliers following the army, rural women in a single village.6 These studies on women as individuals and in subgroups highlight contingent varieties of experience. The latest scholarship recognizes limitations on women’s formal political power but focuses attention instead on women’s creativity and the malleability of gender identity, both in France and in the colonies. However, there was not just one cause that led to this war. , François Furet (1927–1997) was the leading figure in the rejection of the "classic" or "Marxist" interpretation. The three main causes of French revolution are as follows: 1. Claudia Gorbman and John Berks (Bloomington, IN, 1991; orig. 1 (2016): 3–36, quotes on 24–25, 21. La démocratie exclusive et la différence des sexes (Aix-en-Provence, 1989); Joan Wallach Scott, Only Paradoxes to Offer: French Feminists and the Rights of Man (Cambridge, MA, 1996). His book is not so much studied today as part of Revolution studies, but rather as a classic of conservative political philosophy. Several noblewomen led troops against the Republic and attained mythic status as “amazons.” And as Dominique Godineau has illustrated, individual female soldiers could have multiple motivations to join the army: to escape poverty or abuse, follow a husband into battle, express patriotism and win glory, and/or play with their gender identities. Historians of the Revolution F.A. The French Revolution… This approach to the Revolution seems very much in dialogue with current trends in gender historiography in France more broadly. Social rights and French Revolutionary historiography. It seems crucial to continue to put gender history and the transnational turn into greater dialogue with one another by building on the approaches mentioned above and fashioning new zones of study. The domestic world emerges as a refuge from revolutionary confusion. Finally, in the field as a whole, we have an upsurge of work in the history of emotions and a renewed attention to individual psychology and the revolutionary self.27 How can we more successfully incorporate thinking about gender into these approaches? For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.  Les armées révolutionnaires (1968, translated as The People's Armies in 1987) is his most famous work. . Aulard's famous four volume history of the Revolution focused on technical issues. Academie Francaise, French literary academy, consisting of 40 members, established in 1634 by Cardinal Richelieu. The French Revolution at Kingston University, London, History Department, Faculty Member revolutionary era but politics! Thomas CARLYLE book 1.I the bimonthly review Révolution française, ” in army... 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