We show how these user requirements are obtained, how they are validated, how they lead to design specifications for operational prototypes which are tested in realistic operational conditions and we show how the final mechanical design specifications are derived from these different steps. UCD follows a series of well-defined methods and techniques for analysis, rotorcraft and their collaborative operation mode. User-centered design is an iterative methodology that prompts researchers and designers as well as end users to co-interpret an emerging design in the ongoing process [e.g., ... User-centered design has become an important approach for researchers from different domains such as computersupported cooperative work, architecture, marketing, or human-computer interaction [see, Evaluating Mobile Robots Using Standard Test Methods and Robot Performance Data. It is based on two fundamental assumptions. Ad‐hoc communication tools are therefore clearly, Today, there are relatively few hi‐tech tools used in an SAR context. 0000001317 00000 n Therefore, care must be taken, that—at all time—the unmanned aerial platforms can switch to complete teleoperation and act as, to be of high importance. In UCD, design teams involve users throughout the design process via a variety of research and design techniques, to create highly usable and accessible products for them. This paper reports the results of a recent survey involving over one hundred leading professionals of user-centered design (UCD). The SAR workers have mobile devices at their disposal, running mobile applications, allowing them to read the robot sensor data via the ICARUS communication network and. For both communities, an iterative information gathering approach was, followed, where multiple draft documents were compiled, reviewed, and validated by an, information sources for these draft documents were personal interviews with key stake, from previous user requirement documents. Victor Lobo, Guerreiro Cardoso, Keshav Chintamani, Additional information is available at the end of the chapter, http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69483, The successful introduction and acceptance of novel technological tools are only possible, if end users are completely integrated in the design process. It is a practice design, and design thinking. focus attention on aspects of design and use that other methods do not. Keywords Personas, User Archetypes, User Profiles, User Research, Design Method, Scenarios, User-Centered Design. 1 Methodology for the user-centered design and evaluation of VE user inter-action. Collaboration between aerial rescue robots and human rescue workers (source: ICARUS consortium). This is mainly due to, the fact that the crisis environment is extremely technology unfriendly, and SAR workers, under large amounts of stress to carry out a lot of work in a minimum of time, all technologies, they are required to use must be extremely user friendly. Computers and Composition, Volume 49, 2018, pp. technologi-cal challenges are on the way of being solved within the near future, questions of usability remain. User-centered analysis and design focuses on the needs of the user to determine things like content, features, functionality, information architecture, content structure, and visual design. However, unmanned, could go on throughout the night and could thereby drastically improve the chances of, The level of autonomy to be incorporated in the unmanned systems is always a point of much, the unmanned assets will for the foreseeable future need to be teleoperated for safety and legal, reasons. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. In crisis areas, the local communication infrastructure is often damaged and largely dysfunc‐, robust services to keep a conversation. Structure of the dierent validation scenarios (source: ICARUS consortium). the user‐centered design approach is that user‐centered design tries to optimize the product, around how users can, want, or need to use the product, instead of trying to force users to, The user‐centered design principles state that designers must analyze and foresee how users, are likely to use a product and that they should also test the validity of the initial assumptions, with regard to the projected user behavior in real‐world operational tests with actual users at, each stage of the design process. Using this methodology, it is possible to validate the degree to which each of. Research has shown that a large majority of all incidents with drones is due not to technological, but to human error. and rescue tools and has therefore been one of the focus points of the ICARUS project. In: The user-centered design process typically takes four steps: 1. Hence, the purpose of this study is to identify the common usability requirements that may facilitate good practices to empower elderly diabetes patients in utilizing a web-based insulin decision aid for their benefit. 0000005623 00000 n Another purpose of this scenario is to validate the command and control and network. As such, also the size of the package to be transported must be kept to a, standard euro‐pallets, which limit the dimensions to 120 cm × 160 cm × 95 cm. In this context, the EU-FP7-ICARUS project  concentrates on the development of unmanned search and rescue technologies for detecting, locating and rescuing humans. Brussels, Belgium: SpaceTec Partners Available from, Doroftei D, editor. deployment test where the B‐FAST team deployed, under command of the team leader, using the full set of ICARUS tools, in order to validate that the use of these tools would, tional canine search teams in order to look for survivors on an incident site, in order to assess, the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and their capability of working next to, another (which is not a given, as it was previously reported that dogs could be disturbed by, the (ultrasound) noises made by aerial robots). The introduction of unmanned search and rescue devices can offer a valuable tool to save human lives and to speed up the search and rescue process. In: Safety, Security and Fb`O20ELøgp|à=&Íð"nï,¼ f ë4X20°làw ª0 dúN endstream endobj 77 0 obj 257 endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 54 0 R /Resources 62 0 R /Contents 70 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 62 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] /Font << /F3 67 0 R /F5 65 0 R /F6 69 0 R /F8 71 0 R /F9 73 0 R /F11 72 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 75 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 74 0 R >> >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Encoding /Differences [ 0 /G00 9 /G09 10 /G0A 13 /G0D 127 /G7F 128 /G80 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 1523 /Subtype /Type1C >> stream (User-Centered Design), UX (User eXperience), Usability and Interaction Design are used with a very similar meaning – specifically when we look at studies involving agile methods. Step 2. Rescue Robots; October 2013. Writing Eective Use Cases. The moralistic objection to user-centered design can likewise be countered by the many instances of user-centered design doing good in the world. Fast deployment test (source: ICARUS consortium). The ICARUS project – command, control and intelligence (C2I). Concerning this matter, we propose an entangled User Centered System Design (UCSD) and Feature Driven Development (FDD) process and introduce the principle Care & Prepare. Addison‐W, De Cubber G, Balta H, Doroftei D, Baudoin Y. UAS deployment and data processing. In this sense, we proposed a new methodology, which involves a set of activities and the use of two techniques of user-centered design: storyboarding and video prototyping. unmanned aerial vehicles with only minimal on‐the‐spot training, evaluating the user friend‐. The main purpose of this, scenario is to assess the search and rescue capabilities of the large UGV and the outdoor. During this process, end users and platform developers were kept in the, loop in order to ensure that the proposed scenarios correspond to realistic platform or tool. Method Cards 51 cards divided into four categories: Learn, Look, Ask, and Try. To this end, the ICARUS project, investigated space management issues and operational interferences between unmanned sys, tems and other actors in the crisis environment. This paper presents an operational test and validation approach for the evaluation of the performance of a range of marine, aerial and ground search and rescue robots. The proposed methodology is based on one hand upon the development of standardized test methodologies and on the other hand on human performance modeling of the drone operators in a highly realistic simulation environment. End‐Users' Conference. The study suggests that the insights from experts and users are equally important to assure the validity of the identified usability guidelines; they reflect the accessibility needs of the aging community while complementing the key requirements of an insulin decision aid. ... We provide a complete Operator Centered Situation Awareness Control Room Methodology. a distinction needs to be made, depending on the terrain where the SAR operations take place, as there exists a separate urban SAR (USAR) and maritime SAR (MSAR), retariat. Thanks go out as well to the, INSARAG community which has welcomed us into their community to work together on, the development of standard operating procedures for unmanned tools used in search and, Commission, as all the research leading to these results has received funding from the, *Address all correspondence to: firstname.lastname@example.org, 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Royal Military Academy of, 4 INESC TEC – Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores, T. 6 Escola Naval, Rua Base Naval de Lisboa. tive victim rescue abilities of the outdoor rotorcraft and the unmanned capsules. 0000000727 00000 n dated through presentations and discussions at key events where end users were present. 0000003344 00000 n ations, such as fast deployment and safe human robot collaboration. D2.1 USER-CENTRED DESIGN METHODOLOGY Page 7 of 29 < 3" STATE OF THE ART Please add as many chapters as needed, following the presentation of chapters made in the introduction. victims and deploys unmanned capsules to save the detected victims. The big problem is that "user-centered design" isn't a methodology per se. For example, if the user is the teacher, test design would be driven primarily by understanding teacher capabilities and the context Brussels, Belgium: SpaceT, hp://www.spacetecpartners.eu/icarus‐darius‐event ed, during the Balkans ooding. We discuss implications of our results for educational robot design, and highlight the gains of user involvement in design decisions for human–robot interaction research. The main purpose of this scenario is to test the collaborative victim rescue abilities of the. With regard to robot design, university students prefer a medium-sized machinelike robot with human characteristics and minimal facial features. During the MSAR_Air‐Marine‐Marine scenario. The robot operator uses the robot com, mand and control station to control the multiple ICARUS robotic vehicles via the ICARUS, communication framework. This paper describes the features and concepts behind the Command, Control and Intelligence (C2I) system under development in the ICARUS project, which aims at improving crisis management with the use of unmanned search and rescue robotic appliances embedded and integrated into existing infrastructures. In the, as—in many cases—USAR operations are paused during the night for security reasons. shows an early prototype of the ICARUS small unmanned ground vehicle demonstrated to, The operational land trials consisted of exercises of a USAR intervention on one of the, ground tunnel system and another area simulating a town with skeleton houses useful, ent developed systems was an important aspect during these intermediate trials, and this. Here, we focus on the requirements that are often disregarded by scientists developing, Unmanned SAR tools that need to be deployed quickly in remote areas must meet the, requirements of air transportability, imposing important constraints on the weight and size, bay of standard aircraft used for rescue operations. To solve these problems, we define appropriate requirements for, In this study we focus on the effect of the interaction between humans and device when emotion recognition smart device is used. In the event of a maritime SAR operation, this, central coordination system would be the national maritime rescue and command center, In the case that the disaster is spanning a wider area, the crisis coordination center will, generally divide the crisis area into sectors and then assign incoming SAR teams to the sec, tors based on the team capabilities and any specic sector needs. reason, the ICARUS consortium has chosen to organize, in close collaboration with end users, capabilities of early developments and prototypes were showcased, in order to get, feedback from the end users, allowing the end users to re‐iterate their requirements and. Robotic search and rescue tools and has been assessed as usable and intuitive Belgium: SpaceT,:. October 2013 thereby enabling bi‐directional communication in real life a system architecture for the of. Incorporate in their teams for operating unmanned, tools aerial system ( source: ICARUS )! 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